While the combined land-ocean surface temperature was the 8th warmest on record, land surface temperatures, when analyzed separately, were far above normal. Globally, the average October land surface temperature was second warmest on record, at 1.10°C (1.98°F) above average. On average, land areas across the Northern Hemisphere—where the majority of the Earth's land mass is located—were the warmest on record for the month, at 1.29°C (2.32°F) above the 20th century average. The warmth was especially pronounced across Alaska, Canada, Mongolia, and most of Russia and Europe. This image shows much of central and northern Russia with average temperatures more than 5°C (9°F) above average.
La Niña conditions in the Pacific have cooled ocean surface temperatures when compared to the above normal land temperatures. Globally, the average October sea surface temperature was 13th warmest on record. While it was cooler than normal in the central and eastern Pacific where La Niña conditions are most intense, it was notably warmer than normal across the north central and northwest Pacific, the northeast Atlantic, and portions of the mid-latitude Southern oceans.